General characteristics of the Ural Federal District The Ural Federal District (UFD) is a federal district of the Russian Federation, within the Urals and Western Siberia. Formed by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on May 13, 2000.
The Urals Federal District consists of the Kurgan, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, Chelyabinsk Regions, the Khanty-Mansiysk and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Districts. The center of the federal district is Yekaterinburg.
The area of the federal district is 1,788.9 thousand square meters. km or 10.5% of the territory of Russia.
The Urals Federal District occupies 10.5% of the territory of Russia, it accounts for 8.5% of the country's population. Moreover, 80% of the population live in cities. The total population of the Urals Federal District in 2018 is 12,080,526 people.
National composition in 2018 1. Russians - 10 million 237 thousand 992 people. (82.74%)
2. Tatars —636 thousand. (5.14%)
3. Ukrainians - 355 thousand 087 people. (2.87%)
4. Bashkirs - 265 thousand. 586 people. (2.15%)
5. Germans - 80 thousand 899 people. (0.65%)
6. Belarusians - 79 thousand 067 people. (0.64%)
7. Kazakhs - 74 thousand. 065 people. (0.6%)
8. Azerbaijanis - 66 thousand 632 people. (0.54%)
9. Chuvash - 53 thousand 110 people. (0.43%)
10. Mari people - 42 thousand 992 people. (0.35%)
11. Mordva - 38 thousand 612 people. (0.31%)
12. Armenians - 36 thousand 605 people. (0.3%)
13. Udmurti - 29 thousand 848 people. (0.24%)
14. Nenets - 28 thousand. 091 people. (0.23%)
15. Persons who did not indicate their nationality - 69 thousand 164 people. (0.56%) Languages According to the ethno-linguistic composition, the following groups and families predominate:
1.Indo-European family - 10,186,489 people. (84.32%):
1. Slavic group - 10,003,712 (82.81%)
2. German group - 56 191 (0.47%)
3. Iranian group - 39,601 (0.33%)
4. Armenian group - 38,122 (0.32%)
5. Romance group - 21,142 (0.18%)
6. The Indo-Aryan Group - 10,339 (0.09%)
7. Jews Indo-European - 10 248 (0.08%)
2. Altai family - 1,107,732 (9.17%):
1. The Turkic group - 1 105 645 (9.15%)
3. Ural family - 178 322 (1.48%)
1. Finno-Ugric group - 144,534 (1.20%)
2. Samoyed group - 33 788 (0.28%)
4. North Caucasian family - 52 961 (0.44%)
1. Dagestan group - 33 773 (0.28%)
2. Nakh group - 16 398 (0.14%)
5. Kartvel family - 6 214 (0.05%)
6. Koreans - 3,805 (0.03%)
7.Sino-Tibetan family - 2 112 (0.02%) The Urals Federal District is located, on the one hand, at the junction of the most economically developed territories of Russia and Europe, on the other, put forward by their advanced outpost to the most promising in the coming decade, the eastern regions of Siberia, Central Asia, which are rich in raw materials, fuel and labor resources China, Indochina. The Ural Federal District is located in the focus of three fuel and energy complexes of world importance: Western Siberia, including the Kara Sea shelf; Timan-Pechersk Province and beyond the Barents Sea shelf; Caspian region and Western Kazakhstan.
The Urals Federal District is located on the junction of the United States of America. , Central Asia, which are rich in raw materials, China, Indochina. The Ural Federal District is located in the region of the Kara Sea shelf; Timan-Pechersk Province and beyond the Barents Sea shelf; Caspian region and Western Kazakhstan.
The Urals Federal District is located on the junction of the United States of America. , Central Asia, which are rich in raw materials, China, Indochina. The Ural Federal District is located in the Kara Sea shelf; Timan-Pechersk Province and beyond the Barents Sea shelf; Caspian region and Western Kazakhstan.
The geopolitical position of the Urals Federal District is determined by its economic and geographical position deep in the Eurasian continent at the junction of the European and Asian subcontinents. The transit location of the Urals Federal District at the junction of economic interests and the large flows of goods, raw materials and people formed as a result of this led to the powerful development of the main transport infrastructure in the east-west and north-south directions.
One of the most important problems of the Urals is the technical re-equipment and reconstruction of industrial enterprises, primarily metallurgical and machine-building. Without this, in the transition to a market economy, it is impossible to ensure the competitiveness of products manufactured by its enterprises. Of particular importance for the region, given its specificity, is the implementation of programs for the conversion of the military-industrial complex.
In order to strengthen the raw material base of the Urals industry, it is necessary not only to develop new fields, but also to make wider use of overburden rocks, to carry out complex processing of raw materials and the disposal of industrial waste, as well as mining minerals from deeper horizons.
The geographical position of the Urals is very beneficial: for the eastern regions it acts as a pillar of their economic development, and with the western regions it is associated with the export of raw materials, but mainly by the increasing mutual deliveries of finished industrial products. The Ural economic region belongs to the main and most industrially developed regions of Russia. The Ural industry is based on industries developing on the basis of using its local natural resources: iron, copper, aluminum, nickel ores, mining and chemical raw materials, and forest resources.
The territory of UrFU is extended in the meridian direction for more than 2 thousand kilometers. Modern natural complexes of the Urals and the Urals originated in the Neogene-Quaternary time and belong to the Russian Plain, the Urals and the West Siberian Plain. The climatic characteristics of the Urals are determined by its location on the path of movement of warm, moisture-saturated air masses from the west. Therefore, the eastern regions of the Russian Plain and the western foothills of the Urals are characterized by high moistening, while relatively little precipitation falls in the Trans-Urals.
Within the eastern part of the Russian Plain, there is a zonal change of landscapes. Here are the zones of tundra, taiga, mixed forests, forest-steppe and steppe with distinct subzones. In the parts of the West Siberian plain adjacent to the Urals, landscapes of taiga and forest-steppe with a high degree of swampiness of the territory dominate. Actually, the Urals are subdivided into the Polar Urals, Subpolar, Northern, Middle and Southern. Despite the relatively small heights, the Urals are characterized by a pronounced high-altitude zone - the dominant types of landscapes are mountain steppe, mountain forest-steppe, mountain forests, mountain tundra, and loaches. The complex geological structure of the Urals determined the exceptional wealth and diversity of its resources, and the long processes of destruction of the Ural mountain system exposed these riches and made them more accessible for exploitation. The Urals are a treasure trove of metals and chemical raw materials. According to its wealth and diversity of natural resources, it has no equal in the world. About 1000 minerals, more than 12 thousand mineral deposits are discovered here.
The Urals occupy the first place in Russia in terms of reserves of bauxite, chromite, platinum, potassium, asbestos, magnesite and magnesia salts, whose reserves range from 65 to 100% of all the country's reserves. Significant reserves of iron, copper and nickel-cobalt ores, oil, gas condensate, natural gas. There are manganese ores, coal, peat, graphites, various construction materials. The Urals have significant hydrocarbon reserves, which, due to the long industrial development of the Urals, have a rather high degree of depletion. I. Rodionova Economic Geography of Russia. - M .: Moscow Lyceum, 2010. - p. 89.