Territory - 143.1 thousand square meters km. The Republic of Tajikistan consists of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast, Sughd and Khatlon Oblasts, 17 cities, 62 districts (including 13 districts of republican subordination), 55 villages and 368 rural jamoats.
The state border has a length of 700 kilometers from west to east, 350 kilometers from north to south. In the west and in the north it borders with the republics of Uzbekistan (1,332.9 km) and Kyrgyzstan (approximately 987 km); in the south - with Afghanistan (1344.15 km); in the east - with China (494.95 km).
The Republic of Tajikistan is a mountainous country with absolute heights from 300 to 7495 meters. 93% of its territory is covered by mountains. In the north is the Fergana Valley; in the north-west and in the central part - the Turkestan, Zarafshan, Gissar and Alai ranges; in the southeast, the Pamir; the south-western part of the lower - Vakhsh and Gissar valleys.
The capital is Dushanbe.
National holidays - June 27 (National Unity Day), September 9 (Independence Day).
National currency: Somoni, introduced in October 2000.
Population: The population of Tajikistan in 2018 reached 9 million. The average life expectancy in Tajikistan is 67 years.
Ethnic groups: Tajiks - 80%, Uzbeks - 15.3%, Russians - 1.1%, Kyrgyz - 1.07%, Lakaians - 0.83%, Turkmen - 0.33%, Tatars - 0.3%.
The state language is Tajik.
Natural resources: Water resources - rivers and lakes that have systemic glacier feeding. The total length of 947 rivers exceeds 28,500 kilometers. Their share is 60% of water resources in Central Asia. The largest rivers: Panj - 921; Vakhsh -524; Bartang - Murghab - 491; Kofarnihon - 387; Zerafshan - 306 meters.
Glacier areas of Tajikistan exceed 8476 square kilometers. More than a thousand glaciers with a length of over 1.5 kilometers are registered here. 16 glaciers reach more than 16 kilometers in length, including the Fedchenko and Grumm-Grzhimailo glaciers.
The Republic of Tajikistan is also rich in lakes. Their number is about 1,300, with a total area of 705 square kilometers. The largest of them - Karakul, Sarez and Yashkul. The lakes are mainly located at an altitude of 3500 meters.
In addition, more than 400 deposits have been explored and about 100 deposits are exploited, in which up to 40 types of mineral raw materials are mined, both fuel and ore and non-metallic minerals.
In terms of coal reserves, Tajikistan holds the leading position in Central Asia. Total geological reserves are about 4 billion tons. 80% of coal is coking. Many polychemical, rare and noble metals deposits have been identified in the republic: zinc, lead, bismuth, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, silver, antimony, mercury, aluminum, fluorspar, and also gas and oil.
State structure and political system: The state system of Tajikistan is determined by the Constitution adopted on November 6, 1994. Tajikistan is a presidential republic. Since 1994, Emomali Rahmon has been President.
The Majlisi Oli (highest assembly) of the Republic of Tajikistan is the highest legislative and representative body of state power.
The Parliament of Tajikistan consists of two chambers: the lower legislative chamber, the Majlisi Namoyandagon. The upper house of representatives is Majlisi milli.
The Majlisi Namoyandagon of the Republic of Tajikistan consists of 63 deputies and the Majlisi Milli the Republic of Tajikistan consists of 33 members. The term of office of Majlisi Oli is 5 years.
There are several political parties in Tajikistan: the People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan, the Communist Party of Tajikistan, the Democratic Party of Tajikistan, and the Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan.
The system of executive bodies in the Republic of Tajikistan consists of the President and the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan.
The highest court is the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tajikistan.