The Republic of Azerbaijan is a state in the eastern part of the South Caucasus. The territory - 86.6 thousand square meters. Km
Azerbaijan is divided into 66 districts, 12 cities of republican subordination and 1 autonomous republic - the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic with an area of 5.5 thousand square meters. km, geographically separated from the rest of the country by Armenia and Iran.
The capital of Azerbaijan, Baku, has a population of 2.150 million people and is located on the southwest coast of Absheron, a peninsula washed by the Caspian Sea. According to archaeologists, Baku has a history of at least two thousand years. Since ancient times, there has been a seaport here, while the city has also served as the crossroads of caravan routes, including the Great Silk Road. During the reign of the Shirvanshahs, Baku was the capital of the famous Shirvan. In the 19th century it became the largest city in the Caucasus and an industrial and cultural center. Since 1991, Baku has been the capital of the independent state of Azerbaijan. Today, several large-scale urban development projects are carried out in the capital of Azerbaijan. These include the Flame Towers complex, the Heydar Aliyev Center, the SOCAR Tower, the Port Baku and White City projects, the Olympic Stadium, the National Wrestling Centre – just to name a few. Baku is also known for its exhibition and concert halls, art galleries, theaters, museums, sports complexes, an extensive network of international hotels, exquisite restaurants and, of course, beaches, where one can sunbathe and swim five months a year. Many talented architects, including those invited from other countries, have worked in Baku. It is thanks to them and, of course, very progressive customers that the city has been adorned with wonderful buildings, many of which are now considered models of architectural solutions. Art critics talk of a special Baku style in architecture, which is quite unique.
The population of Azerbaijan is 9.477 million people. 91.6% are Azeris, 1.3% are Russians. 53.1% of the population live in urban areas, 46.9% in rural areas. 49.7% are men, 50.3% are women. Life expectancy is 73.9 years (71.3 years for men and 76.6 years for women).
In accordance with the Constitution (adopted on November 12, 1995), Azerbaijan is a democratic, secular, unitary republic headed by the President, elected for a 5-year term by universal direct and equal elections by secret ballot. IG Aliyev was elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan in October 2013 for a third term. The President appoints the Prime Minister (A.T. Rasi-zade) and members of the Cabinet of Ministers.
Legislative power is exercised by the Milli Majlis (parliament). Chairman of the Milli Majlis - OS Asadov. The Milli Majlis has a 5-year mandate and consists of 125 deputies elected by the majority system.
Public holidays: May 9 - Victory Day, May 28 - Republic Day, June 26 - Armed Forces Day, October 18 - Independence Day, November 12 - Constitution Day. Religious holidays having the status of state: Kurban Bayramy, Novruz Bayramy, Ramazan Bayramy. Memorable dates: January 20 - National Grief Day, February 26 is the Day of the Khojaly tragedy, March 31 is the Day of the Genocide of Azerbaijanis, December 12 is the Day of Remembrance of Heydar Aliyev.
In the Republic of Azerbaijan, religion is separated from the state and is represented by a set of various religious movements and denominations that are common among the ethnic groups inhabiting the country and living throughout Azerbaijan.
More than 99% of the population is Muslim. Approximately 65% of the population of Azerbaijan are Shiite Muslims and 35% are Sunni Muslims.
There are 6 Orthodox churches in the country, 3 of which are located in Baku.
GDP in 2013 amounted to $ 72.7 billion, $ 7,861 per capita.
The main natural resources of the country and the main factors of economic development are oil and gas. In 2013, 43.1 million tons of oil and 17.9 billion cubic meters of gas were produced.
According to the State Customs Committee of Azerbaijan, the foreign trade turnover of Azerbaijan in 2013 amounted to 34.68 billion dollars. Exports - $ 23.97 billion, imports - $ 10.71 billion. Trade with Russia amounted to $ 2.58 billion.
The monetary unit is manat (equal to 100 gyapikam). The official exchange rate on January 30, 2014: 1 manat = 1.27 US dollars.
Azerbaijan has unique natural resources: nine out of 11 main climate zones existing in the world are available in Azerbaijan – from subtropical to high alpine meadows. The average temperature in July fluctuates between +5 C in the highlands and +27 C in the lowlands and in January it ranges from – 10 C to +3 C. The maximum summer temperatures can reach 45 C, whereas in winter temperature in the mountains can drop to – 40 C at night. Annual precipitation is 200 mm on the slopes of the Greater Caucasus to 1,200-1,700 mm in the Lankaran lowlands. The best time of year to visit the country is between April and October.
Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the CIS, the Council of Europe, the OIC, GUAM, the Non-Aligned Movement and other organizations.