Country Information

Regional reference of the Russian Federation

Officially – Russian Federation

The area – 17,075,400 square kilometers

The capital of the Russian Federation is the city of Moscow.

Geographical location. A state located on two continents – Europe and Asia. In the South and Southeast it borders with China, in the Southeast with North Korea, in the South with Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, in the Southwest with Ukraine, in West – with Finland, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Norway. In addition, the Kaliningrad region, Russian enclave on the Baltic Sea coast, borders with Poland and Lithuania. Russia also owns the islands Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya, Vaigach, the Franz Josef Land archipelago, the Nivosibirsk Islands, Wrangei Island in the Arctic Ocean; the Kuril Islands (part of the Kuril Islands — Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan — are disputed by Japan) and Sakhalin Island in the Pacific Ocean. In the East Russia is washed by the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea and the Bering Strait, in the North by the Barents, Kara, Chukchi and East Siberian seas, the Laptev Sea, in the West by the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland, and in the South by the Black and Azov Seas.

Population and language. The official (state) language on the whole territory of the Russian Federation is Russian. The peoples of the Russian Federation are guaranteed the right to preserve their native language. According to the 2002 census, the population of Russia is 145,287.4 thousand people.

The monetary unit in the Russian Federation is the ruble.

Main cities, administrative division: The structure of the Russian Federation includes: 22 republics, 6 territories, 49 regions, cities of federal importance Moscow and St. Petersburg, autonomous region and 10 autonomous areas.

The Russian Federation joined the territory of the Crimean peninsula in March, 2014. This event was preceded by a change of power in Ukraine (“Euromaidan”). The issue of accession of the Crimea to Russia was submitted to referendum on March 6. The Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Sevastopol City Council adopted the Declaration of Independence on March 11. A referendum on the status of Crimea was held on March 16. According to the official results of the majority of voters voted for accession to Russia. The independent Republic of Crimea was unilaterally declared on March 17, 2014 on the basis of these results. The Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on the Accession of the Republic of Crimea in the Russian Federation was signed on March 18. The Republic of Crimea and the city of federal importance Sevastopol were included in the list of subjects of the Russian Federation in the Constitution of Russia on April 11.

The international community did not recognize the accession of Crimea to the Russian Federation, continues to consider the peninsula as part of Ukraine.

Religion. Among the religious denominations, Orthodox is the largest; residents of multinational Russia also profess Islam, Catholicism, Judaism, Buddhism.

The President of the Russian Federation is the head of the State.

Official holidays:

January 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - New Year and New Year holidays;

January 7 – Orthodox Christmas;

February 23 – Day of Defenders of the Fatherland;

March 8 - International Women's Day;

May 1 and 2 – May Day (Spring and Labour Day);

May 9 - Victory Day;

June 12 - Day of Russia;

November 4 - Day of People`s Unity;

December 12 - Constitution Day.

Political structure. Russia is a federal republic. The head of state is the president. The executive power in Russia is exercised by the Government headed by the Chairman of the Government. The legislative power is exercised by the Federal Assembly, which consists of two chambers: the Council of the Federation and the State Duma.

Power structure. Russia is a democratic federal law-bound State with a republican form of government. The state power in the Russian Federation is exercised by the President, the Federal Assembly, the Government and the courts.

The principle of separation of powers is related to the fundamentals of the constitutional order. In accordance with it, power should not be concentrated in the hands of one person or one body, but should be dispersed between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. The principle of separation of powers requires a strict delimitation of their competence, the presence of a system of checks and balances. It helps each branch of power limit the others.

Under the President, there are advisory bodies - the Security Council and the State Council. The president presides over these councils.

The President also forms his Administration. It provides the activity of the head of state, creates conditions for the implementation of the functions of the guarantor of the Constitution.

The structure of presidential power includes plenipotentiary representatives of the President in federal districts.