The Republic of Kazakhstan is a unitary state with a presidential form of government. According to the Constitution, a country affirms itself as a democratic, secular, legal and social state, the highest values of which are a person, his life, rights and freedoms.
Kazakhstan gained independence on December 16, 1991. The capital is the city of Astana, from March 23, 2019 - Nur-Sultan. The state language is Kazakh. Russian has the status of a language of interethnic communication. The monetary unit is tenge.
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the head of state, his highest official, determining the main directions of the state’s domestic and foreign policy and representing Kazakhstan within the country and in international relations. The President is a symbol and guarantor of the unity of the people and state power, the inviolability of the Constitution, the rights and freedoms of man and citizen. The government exercises the executive power of the Republic of Kazakhstan, heads the system of executive bodies and manages their activities. The legislative functions are performed by the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which consists of two Chambers - the Senate and the Majilis, which operate on an ongoing basis.
The Senate is formed by deputies representing, in the manner established by constitutional law, two people from each region, a city of republican significance and the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Fifteen deputies of the Senate are appointed by the President, taking into account the need to ensure the representation in the Senate of national, cultural and other significant interests of society. The Mazhilis consists of one hundred and seven deputies elected in the manner prescribed by the constitutional law. Nine deputies of the Mazhilis are elected by the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan. The term of office of deputies of the Senate is six years, the term of office of deputies of the Mazhilis is five years. Currently, three parties are represented in the Majilis - the Nur Otan party, the Ak Zhol Democratic Party of Kazakhstan, and the Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan. Also in the parliament are deputies elected from the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan.
According to the administrative-territorial structure, the country is divided into 14 regions and 3 cities of republican significance.
• The population of Kazakhstan as of February 1, 2017 amounted to 17 million 945 thousand 300 people. According to the 2009 national census, the ethnic structure of Kazakhstani society is as follows: Kazakhs - 63.07%, Russians - 23.70%, Uzbeks - 2.85%, Ukrainians - 2.08%, Uigurs - 1.40%, Tatars - 1.28%, Germans - 1.11%, Others - 4.51%.
Kazakhstan is located in the center of the Eurasian continent. Occupying 2 million 724.9 thousand square kilometers, the country is in ninth place in terms of area among the states of the world. In the north and west, the republic has common borders with Russia - 7 591 km (the longest continuous land border in the world), in the east with China - 1 783 km, in the south with Kyrgyzstan - 1 242 km, with Uzbekistan - 2 351 km and s Turkmenistan - 426 km. The total length of land borders is 13,200 km. In addition, the republic is washed by the inland seas - the Caspian and Aral. Kazakhstan is the largest country in the world that does not have direct access to the oceans.
Most of the country's territory consists of deserts - 44% and semi-deserts - 14%. Steppes occupy 26% of the territory of Kazakhstan, forests - 5.5%. In Kazakhstan, there are 8.5 thousand rivers. The northeastern part of the Caspian Sea is part of the republic. The Aral Sea is divided between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Kazakhstan has 48 thousand large and small lakes. The largest of them are Balkhash, Zaysan and Alakol. Remoteness from the oceans determines the sharply continental climate of the country. The average January temperature is from −19 ° C in the north to −2 ° C in the south, the average July temperature is from +19 ° C in the north and up to +28 ° C in the south. Summer in the country is hot and dry, winter is cold and snowy.
The Republic of Kazakhstan is an industrial country, one of the main sources of economic growth of which is mining. The mineral resource base of the country consists of more than 5 thousand deposits, the estimated cost of which is estimated at tens of trillion. US dollars. The republic ranks first in the world in explored reserves of zinc, tungsten and barite, the second in silver, lead and chromite, the third in copper and fluorite, the fourth in molybdenum and the sixth in gold.
Kazakhstan also has significant oil and gas reserves, which are concentrated in the western regions. Today the country belongs to the category of the leading oil-producing states of the world - more than 80 million tons of oil and gas condensate per year. It is planned to increase annual production to 120 million tons by 2020. Now Kazakhstan is in 9th place in the world in terms of proven oil reserves. In addition, the republic occupies the 8th place in terms of coal reserves and the 2nd place in uranium reserves in the world ranking table.
Traditionally, much attention is paid to the development of agriculture in the country. Kazakhstan is one of the ten leading world grain exporters and is one of the leaders in the export of flour. 70% of arable land in the north is occupied by grain and industrial crops - wheat, barley, millet. In the south of the country, rice, cotton, and tobacco are grown. Kazakhstan is also famous for its orchards, vineyards and gourds. Livestock breeding remains the leading agricultural sector, the key areas of which are cattle, horses, camels and pigs. The country also has developed poultry and fishing.
In a short historical period - from the moment of gaining independence in 1991, the GDP per inhabitant of the country increased 16 times - from 700 to 12,000 US dollars. Over the years of independence, Kazakhstan attracted $ 200 billion of foreign investments, which is about 70% of the total volume of all investments attracted to Central Asia. The country's foreign exchange reserves at the end of 2016 amounted to 90.8 billion US dollars, of which 61 billion dollars accounted for by the National Fund.
In the World Bank ranking on business conditions in 2017, Kazakhstan took 35th place, surpassing all CIS countries.
Kazakhstan's foreign trade turnover in 2017 amounted to more than 77.6 billion US dollars. The main export goods are products of the mining, energy, metallurgical and chemical industries, as well as the grain industry. The main trading partners of the republic are Russia, China, the states of Europe and the CIS.
At present, representatives of 130 ethnic groups live in the republic; an advisory body on harmonization of interethnic relations, the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, is successfully operating. Kazakhstan actively interacts with various partner countries in the framework of a number of international organizations - the CIS, SCO, EAEU, etc.
In July 2010, the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia began to operate, and from January 1, 2012, the Common Economic Space. On January 1, 2015, the Treaty establishing the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) entered into force. These associations are aimed at the effective development of the economies of the participating countries and improving the living standards of the population on the basis of the principle of freedom of movement of goods, services, financial and human capital across the borders of the participating countries.
On March 19, 2019, Nursultan Nazarbayev signed a decree on resignation of the president from March 20, 2019 of his own free will.
Since March 20, 2019, the current President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, according to the Constitution, has become the chairman of the Senate Kassym-Zhomart Tokaev.
On April 9, 2019, in his television message to the people of Kazakhstan, Kasym-Zhomart Tokayev announced the holding of early elections, which were scheduled for June 9, 2019.
According to the results of the June 9, 2019 elections, the current President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev, won, gaining 70.96% of the vote.
Inauguration K.-Zh. Tokaev took place on June 12, 2019.
From May 4, 2020, Maulen Ashimbaev was elected Chairman of the Senate of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The Chairman of the Mazhilis of the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan since June 22, 2016 is Nurlan Nigmatulin.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan since February 25, 2019 is Askar Mamin.