Independence Day of Turkmenistan - September 27 On December 12, 1995, with the unanimous support of all 185 UN member states (at that time), the Resolution of the United Nations General Assembly recognized Turkmenistan as a permanently neutral state. Currently, Turkmenistan has established diplomatic relations with 145 countries of the world.
Turkmenistan is a democratic, legal, secular state. State government is in the form of a presidential republic. The political structure of the Turkmen state was formed in accordance with the Constitution of Turkmenistan, adopted on May 18, 1992 (in the new edition of September 14, 2016). The Constitution of Turkmenistan is the Basic Law of the state, according to which the state structure of Turkmenistan is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial, which act independently, balancing each other. The rules and regulations enshrined in the Constitution have direct effect. Laws and other legal acts that contradict the Constitution do not have legal force.
The bearer of sovereignty and the only source of state power of Turkmenistan is the people.
The state guarantees the freedom of religion and religion, their equality before the law. Religious organizations are separated from the state and can not interfere in public affairs and perform public functions. The state education system is separated from religious organizations and is secular.
The head of state and executive power is the highest official of Turkmenistan - the President of Turkmenistan. He heads the Cabinet of Ministers - the Government of Turkmenistan.
The President of Turkmenistan acts as a guarantor of state independence and neutrality status of Turkmenistan, its territorial integrity, compliance with the Constitution and compliance with international obligations. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan.
Legislative power is exercised by the highest representative body - the Mejlis of Turkmenistan (parliament), which consists of 125 deputies elected by territorial constituencies for a term of five years.
Elections of deputies of the Mejlis are carried out by citizens of Turkmenistan on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot and on alternative principles.
The judicial power in Turkmenistan belongs only to the courts. The judiciary is intended to protect the rights and freedoms of citizens, protected by law, state and public interests.
Square of Turkmenistan:
Turkmenistan is one of the five Central Asian states and ranks second among them in its territory. The area of Turkmenistan is 491.21 thousand square meters. km The territory extends for 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. In the north, Turkmenistan borders with the Republic of Kazakhstan, in the northeast and east with the Republic of Uzbekistan, in the southeast with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and in the south with the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the west, the natural border is the Caspian Sea, through which Turkmenistan borders with the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Population of Turkmenistan:
The population of Turkmenistan is more than 6.2 million people. Turkmenistan is a multinational state. Representatives of more than 100 nations and nationalities live in the country.
The state language is Turkmen. All citizens of Turkmenistan are guaranteed the right to use their native language. The educational institutions of Turkmenistan are provided with the study of three languages - Turkmen, English and Russian. In addition, in higher and secondary specialized educational institutions the study of French, Chinese, German, Japanese and some other foreign languages is provided.
The national currency is manat, put into circulation on November 1, 1993. At present, the ratio of national currency to freely convertible currency is: 3.50 manat = 1 US dollar.
Administrative and territorial unit:
The capital of Turkmenistan is Ashgabat, which is an administrative-territorial unit with the right of velayat. Turkmenistan consists of five provinces - Akhal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary. Each velayat is divided into etraps. In Turkmenistan, there are 43 etraps, 6 etraps in the composition of cities, 51 cities, of which 11 cities with etrap rights, 62 villages, 605 gengeshliks (rural municipalities) and 1,719 villages.
Holidays of Turkmenistan:
Work in enterprises, organizations and institutions is not performed on the following national holidays and memorable days:
1) New Year - January 1;
2) International Women's Day - March 8;
3) National Spring Festival - March 21-22;
4) Constitution Day of Turkmenistan and the State Flag of Turkmenistan - May 18;
5) Independence Day of Turkmenistan - September 27;
6) Memorial Day - October 6;
7) International Neutrality Day - December 12;
8) Kurban Bayrami - the specific date of Kurban Bayrami is annually determined by a decree of the President of Turkmenistan;
9) Oraza bairamy - the specific date of the Oraza bayramy is annually determined by a decree of the President of Turkmenistan.