The Republic of Turkey - The Republic of Turkey is located on the Asian (97%) and European (3%) continents. It borders in the east with Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran; in the south - with Iraq and Syria; in the west - with Greece and Bulgaria. The country is surrounded by Black, Mediterranean, Aegean and Marmara seas.
Time zones - UTC + 3
Climate - The climate on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey is subtropical, with dry hot summers and warm rainy winters. The coolest weather is during the period from December to February. At this time, temperature varies from +6 to + 8 at night, and during the day from +14 to + 16. Hot weather occurs in June and lasts until September. At this time, the temperature in Turkey at night is in the range of +19 ... + 22, and +30 ... + 34 in the daytime.
Population - 84 million 680 thousand (December 2021) The main population of the country is Turks, Kurds, Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Circassians, Lazes, Jews, Georgians, Crimean Tatars, etc. also live.
The capital is Ankara, 5.6 million. The largest Turkish cities are Istanbul (15.36 million inhabitants), Izmir (4.28 million), Bursa (2.95 million), Antalya (2.43 million), Adana (2.4 million) and Konya (2.2 million)
The state language is Turkish.
The Government system is a secular state with a presidential form of government.
National Day of the country - Republic Day is the October 29. Proclaimed on October 29, 1923 Founder and the first President is Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
The head of state is the President, elected by general election for a term of 5 years, with the possibility of re-election for a second term. On June 24, 2018, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was elected President of the Republic of Turkey.
Legislative power is vested in the Turkish Grand National Assembly, a unicameral Parliament of 600 deputies who are directly elected from party lists for a five-year term. On June 24, 2018, the regular parliamentary elections were held, as a result of which the Justice and Development Party in alliance with the party of the Nationalist Movement - the Republican Alliance won another victory. Mustafa Şentop is the speaker of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
Executive power is exercised by the President of the Turkish Republic. On July 9, 2018, President of the Turkish Republic is R. T. Erdoğan formed a new Cabinet of Ministers of the Turkish Republic.
The judicial system consists of civil, administrative and arbitration courts.
Religion - Sunni Islam, 99% of the population is Muslim.
The monetary unit is the Turkish lira. 1 US dollar = 13.58 Turkish lira (January 2022).
Armed Forces - The Turkish regular army has about 480 thousand people (the second largest contingent in NATO). The high command falls under the competence of the President. The actual commander of the Armed Forces is the Minister of National Defense of the Turkish Republic Hulusi Akar.
External relations - Turkey maintains diplomatic relations with 174 states. Foreign Minister - Mevlut Cavuşoğlu. In addition to the UN and NATO, Turkey is a member of various international and regional organizations and structures - the G20, ASEAN, BSEC, OIC, OECD, ECO, Alliance of Civilizations, etc. In 2013, Turkey received the status of a SCO dialogue partner.
Economy - the share of industry in the country's economy is about 28%, agriculture - 15%, construction - 6%, services - 51%. The textile, leather, food, chemical, pharmaceutical, energy, metallurgy, shipbuilding, automotive and electrical industries are well developed. Tourism is a dynamically developing industry.
Education system - there are 207 universities in Turkey, of which 129 are public and the rest are private. The total number of students receiving higher education is over 7 million 940 thousand.
Tourism - Turkey has a well-developed tourist service and infrastructure. This is due to the presence of seaside resorts, as well as the variety of attractions. For 7 months of 2021, Turkey was visited by 10.8 million tourists, the profit amounted to 6.8 billion US dollars; in the context of the coronavirus pandemic in 2020, Turkey was visited by 16 million tourists, incl. 32% Antalya province, profit - 12.59 billion US dollars; in 2019 - 46 million tourists, profit - 29.5 billion US dollars.
National Holidays and Memorial Days - January 1 – New Year; April 23 - National Sovereignty and Children's Day; May 1 - Labor and Solidarity Day; May 19 - Day of Remembrance of Ataturk, Youth and Sports; July 15 - Day of Democracy and National Unity; August 30 - Victory Day; October 29 - Republic Day (main public holiday). November 10 is also celebrated as Ataturk Memorial Day (died 1938). The days off are the days of traditional religious holidays (Sheker Bairam - the end of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, Eid al-Adha), celebrated in accordance with the lunar calendar.